Syria is a country in the Middle East and has been occupied by many populations since Antiquity: Egyptians , Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Ottomans, French… This domination has allowed the construction of many cultural buildings over the years. erected throughout the territory. Syria is going through a complex and tragic period with the war that is tearing it apart. Formerly a country of great historical value, today the ravages of the conflict and the political convictions of one of the belligerents have triggered the destruction (voluntary or not) of a multitude of monuments dating back several millennia. Here is a list of the 7 monuments that were destroyed because of the Syrian civil war.
- 1/ The citadel of Aleppo
- 2/ The temple of Baal
- 3/ The monumental arch of Palmyra
- 4/ The Roman theater of Bosra
- 5/ The lion of Palmyra
- 6/ Krak des Chevaliers
- 7/ The Aleppo souk
1/ The citadel of Aleppo
Built in the 1st century BC. J.-C., the fortress of Alep was recovered on many occasions by various invaders (Romans, Byzantines, Mamluks, Mongols, Ottomans…). It served as a stronghold and was a strategic point for the city of Aleppo. In July 2015, Syrian rebels blew up a tunnel under the old city of the citadel and caused extensive damage.
2/ The temple of Baal
Built in 32 in the city of Palmyra, this ancient temple in Greco-Roman style was dedicated to the glory of the god Baal. It was considered one of the best preserved monuments in the country. It was under the domination of the Roman Empire and the reign of Tiberius that this monument was born in the important city of Palmyra which was at the time a point of passage and crossing of trade routes. It was on August 30, 2015 that Daesh blew up the temple.
3/ The monumental arch of Palmyra
The city of Palmyra was one of the most important cities of the Roman Empire in the Near East. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the city is full of archaeological ruins. We find among them this triumphal arch, built in the 3rd century during the reign of the Roman emperor Septimius Severus. This triumphal arch was directly linked to the Temple of Baal and the Great Colonnade of Palmyra and served as a junction between the buildings. The arc was detonated with dynamite by Daesh in October 2015.
4/ The Roman theater of Bosra
Considered the largest and best preserved Roman theater in the Middle East, this monument simply offered a trip down memory lane for a visit. Built in the 2nd century, it was one of the only ancient theaters to still have preserved its stage wall. Unfortunately, the capture of the city by the rebels in March 2015 caused extensive damage to the building.
5/ The lion of Palmyra
Also in the city of Palmyra, this 3.5 meter high sculpture made of limestone fell prey to jihadists in June 2015. Discovered in the temple of the goddess Al-Lât in Palmyra in 1977, this majestic lion served decoration at the temple. Protecting an antelope (an Arabian oryx), the lion was one of the attributes of the goddess and the statue symbolized animal protection which was one of the main traits of the goddess. Since its discovery, the sculpture was placed in front of the museum of Palmyra, until its destruction.
6/ Krak des Chevaliers
This impressive fortress dates back to the time of the Crusades, in the 1st century AD. A real strategic point, this crusader castle with a warlike past was one of the best preserved in Syria and had experienced the First Crusade as well as the Second. Stronghold of Syrian rebels during the current civil war, government forces regained control of Krak in March 2014. There is damage to the castle building linked to air raids, but Krak is not yet completely destroyed .
7/ The Aleppo souk
Classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the souk of Aleppo, built in the 14th century, was defined as the largest covered market in the world, with more than 13 km in length. Since 2012, the souk has been plagued by fires, bombings and rebel offensives against government forces. The souk has since been empty and destroyed in many places.